The classic bulls-eye rash is one that most people are warned to watch out for and are told to seek medical assistance if it appears on the skin. This rash is called erythema migrans and may occur from infection with a bacterium of the genus Borrelia. These bacteria are spirochetes and have a flagellum that aids in mobility. Borrelia burgdorferi is the most common species associated with Lyme disease. Although there are many subspecies that are closely related, only three definitively cause Lyme disease: B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii, and B. garinii.
Lyme disease is commonly known to be transmitted from tick bites in North America, Europe, and Eurasia. However, research has shown that insects other than ticks can harbor the bacterium. Based on a study in Germany, it has been shown that Borreliacan survive in mosquitos from larval stages to adult stages without dying(1). Normally, Borrelia produces a protein that allows for its survival in a tick until the tick begins to feed and the bacteria can exit the tick into a new host. The bacteria are less likely to be able to survive in a mosquito’s gut due to chemical differences and gut composition. However, mosquitoes feed more often than ticks, therefore reducing the amount of time needed for the Borreliato survive before transmission to a new host.